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After absorbing short-wavelength light, there is a short interval of time when the crystal lattice of ruby is in an excited state before fluorescence occurs.
If nanometer photons pass through the crystal during that time, they can stimulate more fluorescent photons to be emitted in-phase with them, thus strengthening the intensity of that red light.
By arranging mirrors or other means to pass emitted light repeatedly through the crystal, a ruby laser in this way produces a very high intensity of coherent red light.
All natural rubies have imperfections in them, including color impurities and inclusions of rutile needles known as "silk". Gemologists use these needle inclusions found in natural rubies to distinguish them from synthetics, simulants, or substitutes.
Usually, the rough stone is heated before cutting. These days, almost all rubies are treated in some form, with heat treatment being the most common practice.
Untreated rubies of high quality command a large premium. Some rubies show a three-point or six-point asterism or "star".
These rubies are cut into cabochons to display the effect properly. Asterisms are best visible with a single-light source and move across the stone as the light moves or the stone is rotated.
Such effects occur when light is reflected off the "silk" the structurally oriented rutile needle inclusions in a certain way.
This is one example where inclusions increase the value of a gemstone. Furthermore, rubies can show color changes—though this occurs very rarely—as well as chatoyancy or the "cat's eye" effect.
Generally, gemstone-quality corundum in all shades of red, including pink, are called rubies. Often, the distinction between ruby and pink sapphire is not clear and can be debated.
The Republic of North Macedonia is the only country in mainland Europe to have naturally occurring rubies. They can mainly be found around the city of Prilep.
Macedonian rubies have a unique raspberry color. The ruby is also included on the Macedonian coat of arms. Spinel , another red gemstone, is sometimes found along with rubies in the same gem gravel or marble.
Red spinels may be mistaken for rubies by those lacking experience with gems. However, the finest red spinels can have values approaching that of an average ruby.
That region has produced some exceptional rubies, however in recent years few good rubies have been found. In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the s and rapidly became the world's main ruby mining area.
The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya Namyazeik located in the northern state of Kachin. Rubies are also mined in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
In Pakistani Kashmir there are vast proven reserves of millions of rubies, worth up to half a billion dollars.
Rubies, as with other gemstones, are graded using criteria known as the four Cs, namely color, cut, clarity and carat weight.
Rubies are also evaluated on the basis of their geographic origin. Color: In the evaluation of colored gemstones, color is the most important factor.
Color divides into three components: hue , saturation and tone. Hue refers to color as we normally use the term. Transparent gemstones occur in the pure spectral hues of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.
Ruby is defined to be red. All other hues of the gem species corundum are called sapphire. Ruby may exhibit a range of secondary hues, including orange, purple, violet, and pink.
Improving the quality of gemstones by treating them is common practice. Some treatments are used in almost all cases and are therefore considered acceptable.
During the late s, a large supply of low-cost materials caused a sudden surge in supply of heat-treated rubies, leading to a downward pressure on ruby prices.
Improvements used include color alteration, improving transparency by dissolving rutile inclusions, healing of fractures cracks or even completely filling them.
The most common treatment is the application of heat. Most rubies at the lower end of the market are heat treated to improve color, remove purple tinge , blue patches, and silk.
The silk is partially broken, and the color is improved. Another treatment, which has become more frequent in recent years, is lead glass filling.
Filling the fractures inside the ruby with lead glass or a similar material dramatically improves the transparency of the stone, making previously unsuitable rubies fit for applications in jewelry.
If a color needs to be added, the glass powder can be "enhanced" with copper or other metal oxides as well as elements such as sodium, calcium, potassium etc.
The second heating process can be repeated three to four times, even applying different mixtures. In , Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing potash alum at a high temperature with a little chromium as a pigment.
In , Ebelmen made white sapphire by fusing alumina in boric acid. In , Verneuil announced he could produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process.
By this point Verneuil was already developing the process of flame fusion that would later bear his name. Verneuil published details of his new method in , at which point the industrial production of synthetic ruby could begin.
Other processes in which synthetic rubies can be produced are through Czochralski's pulling process , flux process, and the hydrothermal process.
Most synthetic rubies originate from flame fusion, due to the low costs involved. Synthetic rubies may have no imperfections visible to the naked eye but magnification may reveal curved striae and gas bubbles.
The fewer the number and the less obvious the imperfections, the more valuable the ruby is; unless there are no imperfections i.
Dopants are added to some manufactured rubies so they can be identified as synthetic, but most need gemological testing to determine their origin.
Synthetic rubies have technological uses as well as gemological ones. Rods of synthetic ruby are used to make ruby lasers and masers.
The first working laser was made by Theodore H. Maiman in Ruby lasers are still in use. Rubies are also used in applications where high hardness is required such as at wear-exposed locations in modern mechanical clockworks, or as scanning probe tips in a coordinate measuring machine.
Imitation rubies are also marketed. Red spinels , red garnets , and colored glass have been falsely claimed to be rubies.
Imitations go back to Roman times and already in the 17th century techniques were developed to color foil red—by burning scarlet wool in the bottom part of the furnace—which was then placed under the imitation stone.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Variety of corundum, mineral, gemstone. This article is about the mineral or gem. For other uses, see Ruby disambiguation.
Learning is a beautiful thing. Now: Where do you begin? You should start by learning the core programming concepts. You also need to understand that a programming language is a formal language.
What does that mean? One of the keys is repetition. You can do this! If no errors appear then you have Ruby installed on your computer!
Then press enter. This should print your Ruby version. Like this : ruby 2.Es kann aber auch schon vorher mit Schlüsselwort return frühzeitig zurückgesprungen werden. Jetzt Fan werden Log dich ein oder registriere dich kostenlos um click Funktion zu nutzen. Dieser etwas ungewöhnliche und auch umstrittene Datentyp ist in eine Art Mischung aus Integer und String. Ruby beherrscht bewusst keine Mehrfachvererbung, Ruby Ruby stattdessen aber ein Konzept namens Mixins deutsch: Beimischungen. Weiterhin wird eine Datenbank aufgebaut, die mit dem Tool ri durchsucht werden kann. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. True und alle anderen Objekte werden als Wahr ausgewertet. Besonders wichtig, neben den technischen Eigenschaften, war Matsumoto an Ruby auch die emotionale Wirkung auf Anwender, Mitentwickler und sich selbst. Change-Management Datenschutz u. Mixins sind Sammlungen von Methoden, die beliebigen Check this out beigemischt werden können.